International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Physiology <p><strong>Aim and Scope</strong></p> <p>The aim of International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Physiology (IJCEP) is to publish quality research papers in Physiology that have clinical application in medicine or the papers with experimental evidences having future perspective of application in medicine. As Physiology is the mother-subject of all branches of medicine, the ‘Clinical Physiology’ component will include in addition to the research data in ‘Clinical Physiology’, the research papers from all branches of clinical medicine such as diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, endocrine disorders, neurological dysfunctions, pulmonary diseases, gastrointestinal disorders etc., explaining the pathophysiological basis of the diseases and the physiological basis of management and prevention of the diseases. The ‘Experimental Physiology’ component will include reports on all experimental physiology research and the experimental models of diseases that facilitate understanding the pathophysiologic processes and management of diseases. However, the works in ‘Applied Physiology’ or the works in ‘Basic Research in Physiology’ intending to have application in clinical physiology and medicine will be considered for publication in IJCEP. Also, ‘Preventive Physiology’ such as role of nutrition, relaxation therapy, yoga, exercises etc. in health promotion will be published in this journal.</p> <p><strong>Subjects Covered</strong></p> <p>Physiology (Basic, Experimental, Applied and Clinical), Clinical Medicine, Endocrinology, Neurophysiology, Cardiovascular Physiology and Medicine, Gastrointestinal Physiology and Medicine, Pulmonary Physiology and Medicine, Clinical Biochemistry, Exercise Physiology, Nutrition, Sports Physiology and Medicine, Aviation Physiology and Medicine, Behavioural Physiology and Medicine, Reproductive Physiology and Medicine, Ophthalmic Physiology and Medicine, Physiology and Medicine related to ear, nose and throat, Orthopedic Physiology and Medicine, Pathophysiology of Lifestyle and Stress Disorders, Clinical Pharmacology, Physiology of Metabolism and Metabolic disorders and Physiology of Yoga.</p> en-US (IJCEP Editorial Office) (Webmaster) Fri, 08 Jan 2021 07:42:15 +0000 OJS 60 Premetabolic Syndrome is a Major Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Indian Population <p>The metabolic syndrome (MS) is characterized by several cardiovascular (CV) risk factors and is associated with an increased incidence of diabetes, CV events and mortality. The prevalence of MS is increasing in epidemic proportions worldwide, but presently it is most common in India. MS is characterized by the presence of abdominal obesity, high fasting glucose, atherogenic dyslipidemia and high blood pressure.<sup>[1]</sup> MS is related to other comorbidities including, prothrombotic state, proinflammatory state, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and reproductive disorders. MS is also associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes, CV disease and all-cause mortality. Furthermore, there is evidence that MS is an effective clinical tool to identify individual’s predisposition to high risk of CV disease and type 2 diabetes. Prevalence of MS is increasing in epidemic proportions in both developed countries and developing countries. The worldwide prevalence of MS in the adult population is estimated between 20% and 25%. According to data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2009–2010, about one-fifth of the adult population of the United States had high cardiometabolic risk, with the prevalence of MS (adjusted for age) being estimated at 22.9%.<sup>[2]</sup> In Indian population, the prevalence of MS is more than 40% above the age of 40 years.<sup>[3]</sup></p> Gopal Krushna Pal ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 08 Jan 2021 05:07:35 +0000 Pregnancies Complicated by Diabetes, Hypertension and Hypothyroidism: Role of Insulin Resistance <p>During recent times we are dealing with multiple medical complications occurring in a single pregnant woman. It is well known fact that insulin resistance is present during normal pregnancy and it is relatively diabetogenic state. In women with genetic predisposition, diabetes, hypertension and hypothyroidism complicate pregnancy resulting in increased maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. There was evidence in the literature regarding insulin resistance and gestational diabetes. This review analysed the literature regarding the association of diabetes, hypertension and hypothyroidism and found that there is a linkage between these three disorders in pregnant state and the insulin resistance develops by multiple molecular mechanisms both centrally and in peripheral tissues. The key mechanism is insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) which gets inactivated by serine phosphorylation and leads to hyperglycaemia which in turn leads to stimulation of beta cells of pancreas and leads to hyperinsulinaemia. Pancreas has thyroid hormone receptors and this stimulates the secretion of insulin leading hyperinsulinaemia. Hyperglycaemia leading to increase in free fatty acids and together with proinflammatory factors and reactive oxygen species causes endothelial dysfunction and hypertension. More studies are necessary to target insulin receptor to increase insulin sensitivity and prevent these disorders occurring together.</p> Papa Dasari, Nivedita Nanda ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 08 Jan 2021 05:19:11 +0000 Study on the Optimum Parameters of Alternating Magnetic Field Treatments against Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Rats <p><strong>Background and Aim:</strong> Cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury is a major cause of acute brain injury. The pathogenetic mechanisms underlying ischemia/ reperfusion injury involve apoptosis, inflammation and oxidative stress. The aim of this study is to clarify the optimum parameters of low-frequency alternating magnetic field treatment for the functional recovery after MCAO reperfusion injury in rats by using Taguchi method. <strong>Methods:</strong> Brain samples from ischemic hemisphere were removed and weighed to measure the brain water content as brain water content is considered as index to estimate the ischemic-reperfusion injury. <strong>Results:</strong> Neuroprotective effects of low-frequency alternating magnetic fields after the middle cerebral artery occlusion reperfusion injury in rats are most likely to be exerted on parameters with intensity of 15mT, frequency of 20Hz and duration of 15 min for one time. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Contribution ratio of frequency among parameters of alternating magnetic field is the highest for neuroprotective effects.</p> Won Jong, Myong Hui Kim ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 08 Jan 2021 05:38:22 +0000 Assessment of Lower Limb Flexibility in Female Bharatanatyam Dancers <p><strong>Background and Aim:</strong> Bharatanatyam is one of the Indian classical dance forms. Aramandi which is similar to Demi plie position of ballet dancers and Muzumandi are the commonest poses in this dance form. Attaining these poses requires adequate range of motion at the joints and so flexibility is considered as an essential element of normal biomechanical functioning in dance. The objective of the study was to assess the range of motion at hip, knee and ankle joints using goniometer and compare the results between dancers and nondancers. <strong>Methods:</strong> Thirty-two bharatanatyam dancers and 33 non-dancers in the age group of 18-23 years participated in this study. The range of motion for different movements at hip, knee and ankle joints was assessed using goniometer. Data obtained was expressed as mean±SD and independent t test was used to compare the data. <strong>Results:</strong> Dancers had a significantly higher range of motion for flexion (P=0.002) and abduction (P&lt;0.001) at hip joint. Range of motion for external rotation was higher in dancers than non-dancers but not statistically significant. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> This study showed that dancers had higher range of motion for some movements at hip joint but flexibility did not differ from non-dancers at knee and ankle joints. Additional physical training techniques can be employed to improve the flexibility which will reduce incidence of injuries and improve performance.</p> Jyothi S, Sujaya B ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 08 Jan 2021 05:50:07 +0000 Assessment of Action of Statins in End Stage Renal Disease <p><strong>Background and Aim:</strong> Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is one among the highest cause of morbidity globally. Statins are the top list of drugs used for them. It has been shown that the action of statins in severe CKD is paradoxical because lipid management cannot increase their survival. <strong>Methods:</strong> Sixteen CKD patients on dialysis for not less than 6 months who were receiving low dose of atorvastatin were recruited into the study. Blood investigations were performed and their results were compared with another group of non-user of lipid lowering agents. <strong>Results:</strong> Lipid profile, uric acid, calcium, phosphorous, parathyroid hormone, Vitamin D increased but these changes were significant in uric acid and Vitamin D level in the dialysis patients who receive low dose atorvastatin when compared to nonusers of atorvastatin. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Our results showed that atorvastatin in low dose can increase serum vitamin D and serum uric acid in ESRD patients. This side effect can be the herald of accelerated cardiovascular disease and metabolic bone disease. In contrary to popular belief, statins effect on CKD patients is deleterious by increase serum uric acid in an unknown mechanism.</p> Majid Malaki ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 08 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Neutrophil-lymphocyte Ratio and Platelet-lymphocyte Ratio in Iron Deficiency Anemia <p><strong>Background and Aim:</strong> The present study is undertaken to investigate and establish the alteration in the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio and platelet-lymphocyte ratio in iron deficiency anemia patients and to elucidate the link between iron with immunity and hemostasis. <strong>Methods:</strong> Complete hemogram along with differential leucocyte count and platelet count was done in 100 untreated iron deficiency anemia patients, who are visiting/admitted to KIMS, OPD, Hubballi, using Automated analyzer (HP 120). <strong>Results:</strong> The results of the present study showed clearly that there is a significant increase (P&lt;0.05) in neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio as well as platelet-lymphocyte ratio among moderate and severe anaemic patients compared to normal individuals. Moreover, this increase in the ratio is more evident as the severity of anemia is increased. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> The alteration in neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio and platelet-lymphocyte ratio in these patients may be due to low levels of iron as iron has a vital role in proliferation of different blood cells, especially lymphocytes. Thus, the outcome of the present study may be suggestive of a probable link between iron and immunity.</p> Anand Nagesh Hegde, Nagaraja Puranik ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 08 Jan 2021 06:20:42 +0000 Assessment of Role of Dopamine in Medial Amygdala on Body Weight, Metabolic Profile and Lipid Risk Factors in Albino Wistar Rats <p><strong>Background and Aim:</strong> The present study was conducted to assess the role of dopamine in amygdala in the body weight, blood glucose, lipid profile and lipid risk factors in albino Wistar rats. <strong>Methods:</strong> A total of 16 albino Wistar rats were taken for the study and were divided into medial amygdalar group and control group with 8 rats in each group. Stereotaxic cannulation was performed and dopamine was injected into the medial amygdalar nuclei. Blood sample was obtained for estimation of metabolic parameters (blood glucose and lipid parameters) before and after dopamine injection, by computerized metabometer and autoanalyzer. <strong>Results:</strong> Following dopamine injection, there was decrease in body weight, blood glucose, lipid profile and lipid risk factors in medial amygdala group compared to control group. There was positive correlation of body weight with blood glucose, triglyceride, very low-density lipoprotein and atherogenic index.<strong> Conclusion:</strong> Decrease in body weight, blood glucose, lipid profile and lipid risk factors induced by dopamine in medial amygdalar group could be linked to reduction in cardiometabolic risks in these rats. Reduction in body weight could be the key element in inducing reduction of cardiometabolic risks.</p> Kannan Balakrishnan, Gopal Krushna Pal, Nivedita Nanda, Yerrabelli Dhanalakshmi, Balakumar Bharathi, Manoharan Renugasundari, Pravati Pal ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 08 Jan 2021 06:50:14 +0000 Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 - A Doubtful Ambitious Modality for Manipulation <p><strong>Sir, </strong></p> <p>Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is the most widely studied member of the TRPV family. They act as a non-selective cationic ligandgated channel on neuronal and non-neuronal cell membrane and highly permeable to calcium. TRPV1 is distributed widely in the peripheral nervous system, autonomic nervous system and different parts of the brain and essential organs such as the pancreas, liver, lung, kidney and heart. TRPV1 acts as a multisensory receptor for receiving potential injury signals, they can be activated by many exogenous and endogenous mediators that involve in physiological reactions, initiate inflammation and transmit pain signal.<sup>[1]</sup> TRPV1 mediates secretion of proinflammatory factors such as tachykinin and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in nerve endings that causes “neurogenic inflammation” which includes bronchoconstriction, tracheal mucosal edema, inflammatory cell chemo taxis and increased protein secretion. Exogenous and endogenous pro-inflammatory mediators such as capsaicin, resiniferatoxin, PGE2, citric acid and low pH lead to inflammation and chronic cough by increasing TRPV1 expression. TRPV1 can impair immune system by the action of a suppressor of interferon-gamma released by CGRP which is a critical cytokine for innate and adaptive immunity, activation of macrophages, stimulation of natural killer cells down-regulation and neutrophils to prevent virus replication and anti-inflammatory action by promoting some interleukins (IL-10). TRPV1 is a chemosensor in sympathetic neurons and promoter of airway inflammation in the non-neural system. All these evidences indicated that capsaicin, a TRPV1 agonist induces the release of IL-8, as a chemokine that triggers cytokine storm in infections while capsazepine, an antagonist of TRPV1 blocks the pro-inflammatory process.<sup>[1-4]</sup>&nbsp;<strong>Read more...</strong></p> Majid Malaki ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 08 Jan 2021 06:58:59 +0000 News and Views <p>Sleep disturbances occur very often during pregnancy. These disturbances are due to physiologic, hormonal and physical changes associated with pregnancy.<sup>[1]</sup> Sleep disturbances in pregnancy may be a risk factor for hypertension, which can lead to maternal and fetal complications.<sup>[2]</sup> Javaheri, <em>et al</em>. found that poor quality of sleep, defined as sleep efficiency ≤ 85% or short duration of sleep (≤ 6.5 h), was associated with elevated blood pressure in adolescents.<sup>[3]</sup> Similar to non-pregnant women, sleep disturbances can lead to increased blood pressure in pregnant women. Suzuki,<em> et al</em>. found that among 192 pregnant women, 88% of them had sleep disturbances compared with their usual experience. The changes that reported are insomnia, parasomnias, restless leg syndrome, snoring and sleep apnea. The most frequent self-reported causes of sleep disturbance during pregnancy were urinary frequency, back or hip ache and heartburn.<sup>[4]</sup> Okun and Coussons-Read reported that pregnant women had an increased number of naps, awakenings during night time and poor sleep quality than non-pregnant women.<sup>[5]</sup> Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy could cause maternal morbidity later in life and it predisposes to cardiovascular disease in future.<sup>[6]&nbsp;</sup><strong>Read more...</strong></p> Kuzhanthaivelu Karthiga ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 08 Jan 2021 07:05:02 +0000