International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Physiology <p><strong>Aim and Scope</strong></p> <p>The aim of International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Physiology (IJCEP) is to publish quality research papers in Physiology that have clinical application in medicine or the papers with experimental evidences having future perspective of application in medicine. As Physiology is the mother-subject of all branches of medicine, the ‘Clinical Physiology’ component will include in addition to the research data in ‘Clinical Physiology’, the research papers from all branches of clinical medicine such as diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, endocrine disorders, neurological dysfunctions, pulmonary diseases, gastrointestinal disorders etc., explaining the pathophysiological basis of the diseases and the physiological basis of management and prevention of the diseases. The ‘Experimental Physiology’ component will include reports on all experimental physiology research and the experimental models of diseases that facilitate understanding the pathophysiologic processes and management of diseases. However, the works in ‘Applied Physiology’ or the works in ‘Basic Research in Physiology’ intending to have application in clinical physiology and medicine will be considered for publication in IJCEP. Also, ‘Preventive Physiology’ such as role of nutrition, relaxation therapy, yoga, exercises etc. in health promotion will be published in this journal.</p> <p><strong>Subjects Covered</strong></p> <p>Physiology (Basic, Experimental, Applied and Clinical), Clinical Medicine, Endocrinology, Neurophysiology, Cardiovascular Physiology and Medicine, Gastrointestinal Physiology and Medicine, Pulmonary Physiology and Medicine, Clinical Biochemistry, Exercise Physiology, Nutrition, Sports Physiology and Medicine, Aviation Physiology and Medicine, Behavioural Physiology and Medicine, Reproductive Physiology and Medicine, Ophthalmic Physiology and Medicine, Physiology and Medicine related to ear, nose and throat, Orthopedic Physiology and Medicine, Pathophysiology of Lifestyle and Stress Disorders, Clinical Pharmacology, Physiology of Metabolism and Metabolic disorders and Physiology of Yoga.</p> en-US (IJCEP Editorial Office) (Webmaster) Mon, 30 Dec 2019 07:06:31 +0000 OJS 60 Contribution of Family is Critical in the Management of Diabetes <p style="text-align: justify;">Diabetes is a global health problem and World Health Organization (WHO) has described this as an epidemic, especially in India. Though the prevalence of diabetes started increasing in 1970s and 80s, there is a rapid escalation of the disease in first decade of this century. Especially in India, due to rapid industrialization and abrupt change in socio-economic fabric of the society, diabetes has become more prevalent in Indian subcontinent. Earlier diabetes was a disease of affluence in the society who can afford to eat diet rich in sugar and fat. But now, diabetes is quite common in lower and middle class population due to change in the eating habit and decline in physical activity. In 1960s, 2% of adults between the age group of 20 to 50 years had diabetes in the southern part of India including the city of Chennai. But, today diabetes is prevalent in more than 25% of population in this age group in this part of the country. Further, equal number of population is having prediabetes.<sup>[1]</sup></p> Gopal Krushna Pal ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 28 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Role of Sympathovagal Imbalance in Gestational Hypertension: A Mini-Review <p style="text-align: justify;">Hypertension is one of the most common medical problem encountered in about 15% of pregnancies and it contributes to 12% of maternal morbidity and mortality especially in developing countries of south-east Asia. The Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) has a prominent role in the cardiovascular system adaptation to pregnancy. However, in gestational hypertension, sympathetic overactivity leads to intense vasoconstriction that results in hypertension. Current evidence suggests that sympathovagal imbalance is highly prevalent in women with Gestational Hypertension (GHT). The sympathovagal imbalance is a major cardiovascular risk in hypertensive disorders including the hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Thus, sympathovagal imbalance is not only the physiological mechanism for genesis of hypertension in GHT, but also a major contributor to cardiovascular risk in GHT.</p> Kuzhanthaivelu Karthiga, Gopal Krushna Pal, Subramaniyam Velkumary, Dasari Papa, Nivedita Nanda ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 28 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Physical Fitness of Basketball and Volleyball Players of Kolkata, India <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Background and Aim:</strong> Data of fitness profile parameters in Indian basketball and volleyball players are scanty. Present study aimed to evaluate the fitness profile parameters of the volleyball and basketball players and compare the data between the groups and with their overseas and sedentary counterparts. <strong>Methods:</strong> Volleyball (<em>n</em>=40) and basketball (<em>n</em>=40) players belonging to the age group of 18-30 years were recruited from Kolkata, India in addition to their sedentary counterparts (<em>n</em>=30) who were recruited from the same locality where the players reside. Standard procedures were adopted to evaluate the fitness profile parameters. Statistical analyses comprised of ANOVA followed by Bonferroni’s post-hoc analysis with the level of significance set at <em>p</em>&lt;0.05. <strong>Results:</strong> Basketball players had significantly higher anaerobic power and BMI, % body fat and total body fat than the volleyball players, whereas, agility, body density and % LBM were significantly higher in volleyball players. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Inter-group difference among the experimental group individuals may be attributed to the variation in the physical and physiological demands pertaining to their specific sport as well as difference in their training modules. Greater fitness in the studied players in comparison to sedentary control individuals was attributed due to their regular involvement in training.</p> Sohini Basu, Anindita Singha Roy, Rishna Dalui, Amit Bandyopadhyay ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 28 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Conventional Autonomic Function Tests in Patients with Acute Intermittent Porphyria <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Background and Aim:</strong> To assess the autonomic nerve functions in latent and manifest patients of acute intermittent porphyria. The aim of the present study was to study cardiovascular responses to autonomic nerve functions in patients of acute intermittent porphyria, we also tried to find out the relative sensitivity of the various tests employed to study cardiac dysautonomia in these cases. <strong>Methods:</strong> The study was carried out on thirty cases of acute intermittent porphyria to assess the cardiovascular reflexes. Twenty five healthy subjects closely matched for age and sex served as control. The cases were diagnosed by modified Watson Schwartz test, the cases of acute intermittent porphyria were divided into three groups. <strong>Results:</strong> The values of different autonomic nerve function tests were compared with control group and among the different groups of patients. The results were complied, compared and a conclusion was drawn. Immediate heart rate response to standing is more sensitive test than the Valsalva maneuver. Immediate heart rate response to standing is more sensitive and quite reliable which can easily be performed at bed side or even in outpatient departments, the test is simple and non–invasive. In our opinion, the test, beat to beat variation of heart rate to single deep breath is though easy to perform and more understandable, but lacks the sensitivity of other two tests.<strong> Conclusion:</strong> Significant cardiac dysautonomia is present in asymptomatic group, it is more marked in acute attack group. Immediate heart rate response to standing could be a more sensitive and reliable test in this dysfunction.</p> Ankur Ankur, Rampure M Dilip, Irshad Hussain Askari ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 28 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Modulatory Role of Moringa Extract and Vitamin E Contra Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles-Induced Nephropathy in Male Albino Rats <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Background and Aim:</strong> The present study aims to evaluate the ameliorative effect of moringa extract and Vitamin E alone or their combination against Zinc Oxide (ZnO) Nanoparticles (NPs)-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. <strong>Methods:</strong> Eighty Male albino rats divided into eight groups. The 1<sup>st</sup> group (control) received distilled water. The 2<sup>rd</sup> group received Moring extract. The 3<sup>rd</sup> group was treated with Vitamin E. 4<sup>th</sup> group was administered ZnO Nps and group 5 received ZnO Nps in combination with Moringa extract. 6 received ZnO Nps in combination of Vitamin E. 7<sup>th</sup> group was administered ZnO Nps, moringa extract and Vitamin E. The 8<sup>th</sup> group was given ZnO Nps and Silymarin. After 45 days, blood and specimens were collected and renal function test parameters [urea, creatinine, uric acid and Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN)] and lipid profile parameters were measured. <strong>Results:</strong> The results showed that administration of ZnO Nps caused undesirable effects on studied biochemical parameters. The moringa and Vitamin E administration for 30 days subsequent to ZnO Nps exposure yielded significant ameliorative effects (decreased levels of renal function test parameters and lipid profile) on nearly all studied parameters and such effect found compatible with the effect caused by silymarin as a nephroprotective drug.<strong> Conclusion:</strong> The moringa extract in combination with Vitamin E had a significant ameliorative action on ZnO NPs induced oxidative damage and toxicity in rats. ZnO (NPs) increased urea, uric acid and creatinine, BUN, as well as decreased the lipid profile parameters. Hepatic and renal protection was maximum in the combined treatment of moringa extract in combination with Vitamin E than the moringa extract or Vitamin E alone in the ZnO NPs intoxicated rats.</p> Hani M Abdelsalam, Abd El-Aziz A. Diab, Sameh AL-Dohim, Nora Hassan, Mansour Zahra ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 28 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Breastfeeding in Mothers who have Children from birth to 2 years old in Asella Town, Ethiopia, 2015 <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Background and Aim:</strong> Breastfeeding provides the ideal food for healthy growth and development of infants; it is also an integral part of the reproductive process. However, breastfeeding rate is low in developing countries including Ethiopia. <strong>Methods:</strong> A cross-sectional study was conducted from March 20, to June 30, 2015 to assess knowledge, attitude and practice towards breastfeeding mothers who feed their child from birth to 2 years old. <strong>Results:</strong> Of 384 total mothers, about 74.9% and 68.6% mothers had sufficient knowledge and good attitude towards breastfeeding pattern respectively. Only one hundred ninety three (50.3%) of the mothers had good practice of breastfeeding. The proportion of the mothers initiating breastfeeding within one hour of delivery and exclusive breastfeeding was 66.2% and 82.3%, respectively. Being employed AOR (Adjusted odds ratio)=2.58[95% confidence interval (CI)]: 1.29-5.16), having ANC (Antenatal care) follow up AOR=3.33(95%CI:1.65-6.74), institutional delivery AOR=1.22(0.29-0.5.17) and being employed AOR=3.0(95%CI:1.73- 5.20), having ANC follow up AOR=2.93(95%CI:1.41-6.07) and institutional delivery AOR=0.66(95%CI:0.16-2.61) were significantly associated with sufficient knowledge and good attitude, respectively. Moreover, ANC follow up AOR=3.12(95%CI: 1.47-6.66) and being counseled during ANC follow up AOR=2.60(95%CI: 1.52-4.45) had shown statistically significant association with practice of breastfeeding. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> This study revealed that the prevalence of ever breastfeeding and giving the first milk for their newborns was almost universal; however, still mothers had gaps about timely initiation of breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding. Being employed, having ANC follow up and institutional delivery could have an influence on knowledge and attitude of the mothers towards breastfeeding.</p> Debela Tolessa Yadate, Kelil Haji Bedane, Gizaw Eshetu Abaye ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 26 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Cardiovascular Autonomic Function in Normotensive Men with High Salt and Low Salt Intakes <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Background and Aim:</strong> The autonomic nervous system may play an important role in saltinduced increases in blood pressure (BP). The aim of this study is to assess and compare the heart rate (HR) responses to Valsalva maneuver, deep breathing and standing and BP responses to standing and sustained handgrip between normotensive men with habitual high salt intake (HSI) and low salt intake (LSI). <strong>Methods:</strong> Twenty-fourty years old normotensive men (<em>n</em>=34; <em>n</em>=17 for HSI and <em>n</em>=17 for LSI) were recruited by collecting 4 early morning spot urine samples. Average estimated 24-hr sodium (Na+) excretion of 4 urine samples of ≥166 mmol/day was regarded as HSI and &lt;115 mmol/day as LSI. Heart rate responses to Valsalva maneuver, deep breathing and standing (parasympathetic function tests) and BP responses to standing and sustained handgrip (sympathetic function tests) were investigated in both groups. <strong>Results:</strong> Valsalva ratio (VR) [1.64±0.36 (HSI) vs 1.78±0.49 (LSI)], deep breathing difference (DBD) [24.51±9.56 beats/min (HSI) vs 22.93±6.37 beats/min (LSI)] and 30:15 ratio [1.34 (1.12–1.46) (HSI) vs 1.19 (1.13–1.52) (LSI)] were not significantly different in both groups. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) change from lying to standing [-0.67 (-4.00–9.00) mmHg (HSI) vs 0.00 (-3.34–2.34) mmHg (LSI)] was not significantly different between the two groups whereas diastolic blood pressure (DBP) rise in sustained handgrip [18.20±3.49 mmHg (HSI) vs 14.77±4.71 mmHg (LSI)] was significantly higher in the HSI (p=0.022). <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Cardiovascular sympathetic activity appears to increase in normotensive men with habitual high salt intake.</p> Win Win Than, Ei Ei Khin, Mya Mya Thwin ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 28 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Comparison of Acute Bout of Moderate Intensity and High Intensity Exercise on Oxidative Stress, Inflammatory Markers and Neurocognitive Parameters between Male Athletes and Non-athletes – A Randomized Controlled Study <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Background and Aim:</strong> Physical inactivity and resultant obesity are highly prevalent in the contemporary world. Studies reveal that even an acute bout of physical exercise can bring about health benefits similar to that of regular exercise. Our study aims to assess the effect of single acute bout of exercise on cognition, oxidative stress and inflammatory markers between athletes and non-athletes and to compare the effect of moderate and high intensity exercise on those parameters. <strong>Methods:</strong> The study is a double-arm parallel design randomized controlled study. Eighty healthy male volunteers (40 athletes and 40 non-athletes) were recruited and further randomized into four subgroups: Athlete moderate-intensity exercise, athlete high-intensity exercise, non-athlete moderate-intensity exercise and non-athlete high-intensity exercise. A single acute bout of treadmill exercise was given to all the subgroups. Cognitive parameters, oxidative stress and inflammatory markers were assessed before and after acute bout of exercise and compared between the groups. <strong>Results:</strong> At baseline, athletes had reduced oxidative stress and inflammation than non-athletes, which is evident by increased total anti-oxidant status and decreased leptin in athletes, whereas no significant changes in cognitive parameters between the groups. In addition, we found that moderate intensity exercise is superior to high intensity exercise in decreasing inflammation and oxidative stress in both the groups. However, no such changes were observed with respect to cognitive parameters with different intensities of exercise. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> A single acute bout of exercise is sufficient to improve oxidative and inflammatory parameters in both athletes and non-athletes, whereas cognitive functions does not improve by single acute bout of exercise.</p> Keni Gowsi, Gopal Krushna Pal, Karthick Subramanian ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 28 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 News and Views <p><strong>NEWS</strong><br><strong>Maternal Consumption of Nut Boosts Foetal Neurodevelopment</strong><br>Maternal intake of nut at higher levels in early pregnancy is associated with enhanced neuropsychological development in offsprings at 1.5, 5 and&nbsp;8 years old. A diet deficient in nuts and seeds accounts to leading dietary risk for Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs).<sup>[1]&nbsp;</sup>Depression and mild cognitive disorders are negatively correlated with dietary pattern with nuts as a primary component. The essential fatty acids&nbsp;or nutritional components like folic acid compose the healthful nut. During human gestation, the brain undergoes a number of puzzling process for&nbsp;which maternal nutrition appears to be the prime factor that contributes to an adequate foetal neurodevelopment with long-term effects.<sup>[2]</sup>&nbsp;The nut consumption in the Spanish population includes mostly almonds and walnuts (prime source of ALA- Alpha Lipoic Acid).<sup><sub>[3]</sub></sup> ALA- a widely&nbsp;distributed protein in the brain necessitates crucial number of functions such as neuronal maintenance and neurogenesis. In addition, the learning&nbsp;and memory, brain plasticity and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is elicited on ALA supplementation.<sup>[4] </sup>Thus, the reality of insufficient beneficial nutrients in pregnant woman will additionally have long-term functional consequences during child development.</p> Anandaradje Annuja ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 28 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000