International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Physiology http://ijcep.phcog.interactivedns.com/index.php/ijcep <p><strong>Aim and Scope</strong></p> <p>The aim of International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Physiology (IJCEP) is to publish quality research papers in Physiology that have clinical application in medicine or the papers with experimental evidences having future perspective of application in medicine. As Physiology is the mother-subject of all branches of medicine, the ‘Clinical Physiology’ component will include in addition to the research data in ‘Clinical Physiology’, the research papers from all branches of clinical medicine such as diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, endocrine disorders, neurological dysfunctions, pulmonary diseases, gastrointestinal disorders etc., explaining the pathophysiological basis of the diseases and the physiological basis of management and prevention of the diseases. The ‘Experimental Physiology’ component will include reports on all experimental physiology research and the experimental models of diseases that facilitate understanding the pathophysiologic processes and management of diseases. However, the works in ‘Applied Physiology’ or the works in ‘Basic Research in Physiology’ intending to have application in clinical physiology and medicine will be considered for publication in IJCEP. Also, ‘Preventive Physiology’ such as role of nutrition, relaxation therapy, yoga, exercises etc. in health promotion will be published in this journal.</p> <p><strong>Subjects Covered</strong></p> <p>Physiology (Basic, Experimental, Applied and Clinical), Clinical Medicine, Endocrinology, Neurophysiology, Cardiovascular Physiology and Medicine, Gastrointestinal Physiology and Medicine, Pulmonary Physiology and Medicine, Clinical Biochemistry, Exercise Physiology, Nutrition, Sports Physiology and Medicine, Aviation Physiology and Medicine, Behavioural Physiology and Medicine, Reproductive Physiology and Medicine, Ophthalmic Physiology and Medicine, Physiology and Medicine related to ear, nose and throat, Orthopedic Physiology and Medicine, Pathophysiology of Lifestyle and Stress Disorders, Clinical Pharmacology, Physiology of Metabolism and Metabolic disorders and Physiology of Yoga.</p> EManuscript Technologies en-US International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Physiology 2348-8832 Preobesity has High Cardiovascular Risks and soon could be a Disease http://ijcep.phcog.interactivedns.com/index.php/ijcep/article/view/434 <p>Recently, India has emerged substantially in economy, growth and development and occupies the position of world’s seventh largest economy. Due to rapid economic growth, the lifestyle of the general Indian population has changed greatly. Increased job opportunities and increased income of the family has made a larger section of the public rich and in general, the people have enough money. There is rapid proliferation of hotel industries everywhere and there are restaurants of kinds at all places. With access to all varieties of food and having money to pay for enough eating, the country which was starving a decade before has now become the country of plenty and excess eating. Also, recently the use of two-wheelers and cars has increased in the community that has significantly resulted in reduction in physical activity such as walking and cycling. All these factors have contributed to obesity and overweight, the conditions of excess adiposity (more fat deposition in the body). However, also there is simultaneous increase in health consciousness due to increased incidence of diabetes and related complications, for which people have been motivated to do some kind of physical exercises such as morning walk, going to gym etc. Therefore, the incidence of gross obesity has been reduced in the population. However, due to faulty eating habit and lack of physical activities at work place, a larger population has increase in body weight, though overtly they do not look obese. This is called overweight. In this state of overweight, recently it has been observed to have many health problems, especially the future risks of developing diseases, particularly the cardiovascular (CV) diseases.<sup>[1]</sup> Especially, overweight people in Indian subcontinent are seen to be more prone to CV risks. Therefore, range of Body Mass Index (BMI) for overweight Indians and Asians in general is currently much lower (BMI 23–27.5) compared to the population in western countries (BMI 25-29.9).<sup>[2]</sup> The prevalence of diabetes, hypertension, heart disease and related complications such stroke has been observed to be quite high and comparable to the prevalence that is seen obesity, especially in Indian population. <sup>[3]</sup> Therefore, the term ‘Overweight’ has recently been renamed as ‘Pre-obesity’. Preobesity similar to that of prehypertension and prediabetes is reported to be a condition of greater health concern.</p> Gopal Krushna Pal Jagadeeswaran Indumathy ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-09-30 2019-09-30 6 3 77 77 10.5330/ijcep.2019.6.3.21 Biological Markers of Cognition in Exercise: A Mini Review http://ijcep.phcog.interactivedns.com/index.php/ijcep/article/view/435 <p>Exercise is an essential aspect of our daily routine to maintain overall physical and mental health. Exercise and its influence on mental health is an emerging trend in the scientific research. Exercise not only improves physical health, but also influences long-term brain function and behaviour. In this review article, we have discussed the role of biological markers that reflect improvement in cognitive function in exercise. The understanding of how exercise ensures cognitive improvement is of paramount importance for implicating the role of exercise in reducing the burden of mental problems in the society.</p> Keni Gowsi Gopal Krushna Pal Karthick Subramanian ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-09-30 2019-09-30 6 3 78 81 10.5330/ijcep.2019.6.3.22 Acute Administration of Nymphaea lotus Increases Body Weight and Exploratory Behaviour in Mice http://ijcep.phcog.interactivedns.com/index.php/ijcep/article/view/436 <p><strong>Background and Aim:</strong> The effects on body weight and exploratory behavior following acute administration of the leaves of <em>Nymphaea lotus</em> were determined using mice as experimental animals.<strong> Methods:</strong> Thirty Swiss white mice were randomly divided into group A, B and C. All the mice had access to clean drinking water<em> ad libitum</em>. Before the neurobehavioral parameters were assessed, the LD<sub>50</sub> and the phytochemical screening of the leaves of the plant were determined. The open field maze and the light/dark transition box apparatus were used to determine the level of exploratory behaviors in mice.<strong> Results:</strong> In the open field maze, the line crosses and rearing frequency were significantly different when compared to control (<em>P</em>&lt;0.01). Stretch Attend Posture frequency (SAP) was significantly higher in the test groups when compared to control (<em>P</em>&lt;0.01). It was also observed that the frequency of grooming in the light/dark transition box decreased in the treated groups when compared to the control group (<em>P</em>&lt;0.05 and at <em>P</em>&lt;0.01). Frequency of transition were significantly higher (<em>P</em>&lt;0.01 and at <em>P</em>&lt;0.001) compared to control. The body weight was significantly higher in the mice treated groups when compared to control (<em>P</em>&lt;0.01). <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Thus, the leaves of <em>Nymphaea lotus</em> enhances exploratory behavior and increases body weight in mice.</p> Aduema Wadioni Vidona WB Akunneh-Wariso Chris Amah Akuma Kalu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-09-30 2019-09-30 6 3 82 85 10.5330/ijcep.2019.6.3.23 Myocardial Work Stress is Linked to the Levels of Glycated Hemoglobin in Indian Prediabetic Population http://ijcep.phcog.interactivedns.com/index.php/ijcep/article/view/437 <p><strong>Background and Aim:</strong> Cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus are major health concerns In India. Prediabetes shares common pathology with these two diseases. However, the factors contributing to myocardial dysfunction in prediabetes have not been assessed. In this study, we have assessed various cardiometabolic factors contributing to myocardial work stress in in prediabetic subjects. <strong>Methods:</strong> In the present study, the anthropometric parameters, parameters of insulin resistance, inflammation, oxidative stress, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), lipid profile, atherogenic lipid risk factors and Rate-pressure Product (RPP), the marker of myocardial work stress were assessed in early middle-aged prediabetes population (<em>n</em>=33) and compared with healthy non-diabetic controls (<em>n</em>=36). <strong>Results:</strong> Prediabetes subjects had increased body mass index (<em>P</em>&lt;0.01), waist-hip ratio (<em>P</em>&lt;0.05), lipid risk factors of atherosclerosis [TC/ HDL-C; P&lt;0.05, LDL C/ HDL-C; <em>P</em>&lt;0.05 and atherogenic index (AI) <em>P</em>&lt;0.05], HbA1c (<em>P</em>&lt;0.001), oxidative stress (increased malondialdehyde; <em>P</em>&lt;0.001 and decreased total antioxidant status, <em>P</em>&lt;0.001) and increased high-sensitive C-reactive protein (<em>P</em>&lt;0.01). They had higher Basal Heart Rate (BHR) (<em>P</em>&lt;0.05) and RPP (<em>P</em>&lt;0.05) denoting increased CV risk in comparison to controls.<strong> Conclusion:</strong> There is myocardial work stress in the form of increased RPP in Indian prediabetic population. The RPP in prediabetes could be linked to increases HbA1c. RPP being a non-invasive risk marker may be studied further to assess its implication as a screening tool for determining CV risks in prediabetes.</p> Sakkarabani Priyanka Nivedita Nanda Gopal Krushna Pal Mukta Wyawahare Arvind Nagarathinam ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-09-30 2019-09-30 6 3 86 90 10.5330/ijcep.2019.6.3.24 Antinociceptive and Relaxant Effects of Aqueous Extract of the Aerial Part of Ziziphora clinopodioides http://ijcep.phcog.interactivedns.com/index.php/ijcep/article/view/438 <p><strong>Background and Aim:</strong> Plants from Iranian biomes, such as<em> Ziziphora clinopodioides</em> has been used as natural medicines by local populations in the treatment of several diseases such as asthma and stomachache and hypertension. In this study we investigated the antinociceptive and spasmolytic effects of aerial parts of aqueous extract of <em>Ziziphora clinopodioides</em> (APAEZC).<strong> Methods:</strong> The extract was injected to male mice 15 min before the onset of experiments intraperitoneally. Writhing and hot-plate tests were applied to study the analgesic effect of APAEZC and compared with that of diclofenac sodium (30 mg/kg, i.p.) or morphine (8 mg/kg, i.p). For evaluating spasmolytic effect of the extract, 5 cm of smooth muscle from ileum of rats were removed and set up for recording the isotonic contractions. Control contractions were obtained by adding acetylcholine (10<sup>-4</sup>M) to each tissue preparation and the spasmolytic action of different APAEZC concentrations (0.1, 0.2 and 0.3%) on maximum contraction induced by acetylcholine were evaluated 5 min later.<strong> Results:</strong> APAEZC exhibited a significant (<em>P</em>&lt;0.05) antinociceptive effect in both chronic and acute pain in all doses in mice and also showed a significant spasmolytic effect at dose 0.2 (<em>P</em>&lt;0.05) and dose 0.3% (<em>P</em>&lt;0.01). <strong>Conclusion:</strong> The findings of this study indicated that APAEZC have analgesic and relaxant effects. These results support the traditional claim of <em>Ziziphora clinopodioides</em> as an antinociceptive and antispasmodic therapeutic agent.</p> Seyyed Majid Bagheri Hamid Mohamadsadeghi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-09-30 2019-09-30 6 3 91 94 10.5330/ijcep.2019.6.3.25 Synergistic Effects of Metformin and Cocoa Flavanol on Inflammatory and Oxidant Markers Induced by Carrageenan: Pathophysiological Approach http://ijcep.phcog.interactivedns.com/index.php/ijcep/article/view/439 <p><strong>Background and Aim:</strong> The present study aims to evaluate the effects of metformin, cocoa flavanol and their combination as anti-inflammatory and antioxidant drugs.<strong> Methods:</strong> Forty adult male albino mice are divided into five groups: Control, Carrageenan (Cg), Cg Metformin (Met), Cg Cocoa and Cg Met Cocoa groups. Cg is used to induce the inflammation through injection of it in the paw of the hind leg and into the trunk of mice. Also, Met is applied intraperitoneally at the same time of Cg injection while Cocoa is received orally seven days before carrageenan injection. Biochemical estimation of inflammatory mediators (COX-2, PGE2, TNF-α, CRP) and selected oxidative stress markers (MDA, SOD, GSH) was performed. <strong>Results:</strong> This study elucidated the marvellous leverage of the metformin, cocoa flavanol and their combination as anti-inflammatory and antioxidant drugs, where metformin and Cocoa decreased all inflammatory mediators (COX-2, PGE2, TNF-α, CRP) with high significant (<em>P</em>&lt;0.01) in comparing with Cg group. In addition, the level of MDA is decreased significantly (<em>P</em>&lt;0.01), while the levels of SOD and GSH are increased significantly (<em>P</em>&lt;0.01) in comparing with Cg group. Interestingly, their combination restored normal levels of the inflammatory mediators and the oxidative stress markers.<strong> Conclusion:</strong> I concluded that Met and cocoa are powerful anti-inflammatory substances and can ameliorate the oxidative stress that results from inflammation. Additionally, the mixture of them can retrieve the normal levels of all measured parameters.</p> Hani M Abdelsalam ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-09-30 2019-09-30 6 3 95 99 10.5330/ijcep.2019.6.3.26 Relationship between Oxidative Stress, Serum Zinc Level and Systemic Arterial Blood Pressure in Smokers and Non-smokers http://ijcep.phcog.interactivedns.com/index.php/ijcep/article/view/440 <p><strong>Background and Aim:</strong> Either active or passive smoking causes damage to the heart and blood vessels. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between oxidative stress, serum zinc level and systemic arterial blood pressure in smokers and non-smokers. <strong>Methods:</strong> A cross sectional comparative study was done. Apparently healthy subjects of age 18-45 years including 40 smokers and 40 non-smokers residing in Magway Township, Myanmar were recruited. Serum zinc level was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry method. Serum malondialdehyde level was used as oxidative stress marker and measured by spectrophotometry. Systemic arterial blood pressure was measured by indirect method using mercury sphygmomanometer. <strong>Results:</strong> Mean serum zinc level of smokers (51.25±7.5 μg/dL) was significantly lower than that of non-smokers (92.91±27.46 μg/dL) (<em>P</em>&lt; 0.001). Mean serum malondialdehyde level of smokers (0.78±0.14 μmol/L) was significantly higher than that of non-smokers (0.24±0.09 μmol/L) (<em>P</em>&lt; 0.001). Mean Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP) of non-smokers was 120.95±5.02 mmHg and that of smokers was 126.55±6.14 mmHg (<em>P</em>&lt;0.05). There was significant negative correlation between serum malondialdehyde level and serum zinc level (<em>r</em> = - 0.75, <em>P</em>&lt; 0.001, <em>n</em>=80). There was also significant negative correlation between serum zinc level and SBP (<em>r</em> = - 0.477, <em>p</em>&lt; 0.001, <em>n</em>=80). There was positive correlation between serum malondialdehyde level and SBP (<em>r</em> = 0.487, <em>p</em>&lt; 0.001, <em>n</em>=80). <strong>Conclusion:</strong> It could be concluded that smoking increases oxidative stress and decreases serum zinc level and these two changes might contribute to increase in blood pressure in smokers.</p> Zarchi Theint Theint Hlaing ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-10-04 2019-10-04 6 3 100 103 10.5330/ijcep.2019.6.3.27 News and Views http://ijcep.phcog.interactivedns.com/index.php/ijcep/article/view/441 <p>Sleep deprivation for a prolonged time has been linked with many chronic conditions such as increased body weight, glucose intolerance, hypertension, cognitive impairment.<sup>[1]</sup> Obesity could be a leading reason behind morbidity and mortality in the twenty first century and its pervasiveness has been quickly expanding in the course of recent years. As of late, a comparable development in self-revealed lack of sleep has been seen, parallel to the epidemic of obesity. The average sleep time in the general population is projected to have dropped by an average of 2 hours per night. People sleeping less than 6.5 hours are at greater risk of gaining weight whereas excessive sleep duration is associated with increased morbidity<sup>.[2,3]</sup> Obesity which leads to low–grade systemic inflammation is viewed as the key connection among obesity and obesity-related illness that includes cognitive dysfunction. Reduced sleep increases the danger of intellectual disability for individuals. Cognitive dysfunction especially in the domains of attention and memory increases the risk of Alzheimer in people getting even 1 hour less than the required sleep affects.<sup>[4]</sup> Food reward pathways got activated which led to weight gain when partial sleep restriction provided for six days.<sup>[5]</sup></p> Manoharan Renugasundari ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-09-30 2019-09-30 6 3 104 104 10.5330/ijcep.2019.6.3.28