Role of Chemerin as a Putative Biomarker of Cardiovascular Risk in Metabolic Syndrome: A Brief Review
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the major alarming causes of morbidity and mortality with widespread prevalence around the world. The major risk factor for cardiovascular disease is metabolic syndrome (MetS) and is most prevalent among obesity-related comorbidities. The main causative factors linking metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease are assumed to involve the expansion of adipose tissue and chronic inflammation. In addition to storing surplus fat, adipose tissue also produces adipokines which act through autocrine, paracrine and endocrine functions in the body. Increasing evidence suggests that the altered secretion of adipokines may play a role in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome but the mechanisms underlying are not fully known. To date, only leptin and adiponectin are the best-studied adipokines among the variety of adipokines secreted by adipose tissue. However, recent studies have implicated the novel adipokine chemerin as a regulator of adipogenesis, inflammation and glucose metabolism which demonstrates its multifaceted actions. Furthermore, they also found that elevated circulating levels of chemerin in metabolic syndrome acts as a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Chemerin has gained considerable interest due to its role as a pro- or anti-inflammatory mediator is still controversial and the effect of chemerin on glucose metabolism is a matter of debate. Thus, the purpose of this review is to focus primarily on chemerin expression, processing, signaling of receptors, biological actions and pathophysiological implications and the role of chemerin as a biomarker of cardiovascular disease in metabolic syndrome.